Many investors turn to Benjamin Graham's so-called “Graham number” to calculate the fair price of a stock. The Graham number is √(22.5 * 5 year average earnings per share * book value per share), which for Kraft Heinz gives us a fair price of $41.22. In comparison, the stock’s market price is $33.68 per share. Kraft Heinz’s current market price is -18.3% below its Graham number, which implies that there is upside potential -- even for a conservative investors who require a significant margin of safety.
The Graham number is often used in isolation, but in fact it is only one part of a check list for choosing defensive stocks that he laid out in Chapter 14 of The Intelligent Investor. The analysis requires us to look at the following fundamentals of Kraft Heinz:
Sales Revenue Should Be No Less Than $500 million
For Kraft Heinz, average sales revenue over the last 6 years has been $33.45 Billion, so in the context of the Graham analysis the stock has impressive sales revenue. Originally the threshold was $100 million, but since the book was published in the 1970s it's necessary to adjust the figure for inflation.
Current Assets Should Be at Least Twice Current Liabilities
We calculate Kraft Heinz's current ratio by dividing its total current assets of $7.9 Billion by its total current liabilities of $9.03 Billion. Current assets refer to company assets that can be transferred into cash within one year, such as accounts receivable, inventory, and liquid financial instruments. Current liabilities, on the other hand, refer to those that will come due within one year. Kraft Heinz’s current liabilities are actually greater than its current assets, since its current ratio is only 0.9.
The Company’s Long-term Debt Should Not Exceed its Net Current Assets
This means that its ratio of debt to net current assets should be 1 or less. Since Kraft Heinz’s debt ratio is -0.6, the company has much more liabilities than current assets. We calculate Kraft Heinz’s debt to net current assets ratio by dividing its total long term of debt of $19.23 Billion by its current assets minus total liabilities of $41.64 Billion.
The Stock Should Have a Positive Level of Retained Earnings Over Several Years
Kraft Heinz had negative retained earnings in 2018, 2019, and 2020 with an average of $-327875000.0. Retained earnings are the sum of the current and previous reporting periods' net asset amounts, minus all dividend payments. It's a similar metric to free cash flow, with the difference that retained earnings are accounted for on an accrual basis.
There Should Be a Record of Uninterrupted Dividend Payments Over the Last 20 Years
Shareholders of Kraft Heinz have received regular dividends since 2016. The company has returned an average dividend yield of 4.9% over the last five years.
A Minimum Increase of at Least One-third in Earnings per Share (EPS) Over the Past 10 Years
There are only 9 years of EPS data available on Kraft Heinz, which is short of the required 10, but it's still worthwhile to consider its EPS trend over the available period. First, we will average out its EPS for 2014 and 2015 which were $-0.04 and $-0.27 respectively. This gives us an average of $-0.16 for the period of 2014 to 2015. Next, we compare this value with the average EPS reported in 2021 and 2022, which were $0.82 and $1.91, for an average of $1.36. Now we see that Kraft Heinz's EPS growth was 950.0% during this period, which satisfies Ben Graham's requirement for growth.
Kraft Heinz does not have the profile of a defensive stock according to Benjamin Graham's criteria because in addition to trading below its fair value, it has:
- impressive sales revenue
- not enough current assets to cover current liabilities
- much more liabilities than current assets
- negative retained earnings in 2018, 2019, and 2020
- an acceptable record of dividends
- EPS growth in excess of Graham's requirements