Coca-Cola is currently trading at $52.72 per share and has a Graham number of $17.1, which implies that it is 208.3% above its fair value. We calculate the Graham number as follows:
√(22.5 * 5 year average earnings per share * book value per share) = √(22.5 * 1.68 * 6.016) = 17.1
The Graham number is one of seven factors that Graham enumerates in Chapter 14 of The Intelligent Investor for determining whether a stock offers a margin of safety. Rather than use the Graham number by itself, its best to consider it alongside the following fundamental metrics:
Sales Revenue Should Be No Less Than $500 million
For Coca-Cola, average sales revenue over the last 6 years has been $66.78 Billion, so in the context of the Graham analysis the stock has impressive sales revenue. Originally the threshold was $100 million, but since the book was published in the 1970s it's necessary to adjust the figure for inflation.
Current Assets Should Be at Least Twice Current Liabilities
We calculate Coca-Cola's current ratio by dividing its total current assets of $22.59 Billion by its total current liabilities of $19.72 Billion. Current assets refer to company assets that can be transferred into cash within one year, such as accounts receivable, inventory, and liquid financial instruments. Current liabilities, on the other hand, refer to those that will come due within one year. Coca-Cola’s current assets outweigh its current liabilities by a factor of 1.2 only.
The Company’s Long-term Debt Should Not Exceed its Net Current Assets
This means that its ratio of debt to net current assets should be 1 or less. Since Coca-Cola’s debt ratio is -0.8, the company has much more liabilities than current assets. We calculate Coca-Cola’s debt to net current assets ratio by dividing its total long term of debt of $36.38 Billion by its current assets minus total liabilities of $66.94 Billion.
The Stock Should Have a Positive Level of Retained Earnings Over Several Years
Coca-Cola had positive retained earnings from 2008 to 2022 with an average of $59.52 Billion. Retained earnings are the sum of the current and previous reporting periods' net asset amounts, minus all dividend payments. It's a similar metric to free cash flow, with the difference that retained earnings are accounted for on an accrual basis.
There Should Be a Record of Uninterrupted Dividend Payments Over the Last 20 Years
Coca-Cola has offered a regular dividend since at least 2008. The company has returned an average dividend yield of 3.0% over the last five years.
A Minimum Increase of at Least One-third in Earnings per Share (EPS) Over the Past 10 Years
We are going to compare Coca-Cola's earnings per share averages from the two 'bookends' of the 16 year period for which we have data. The first bookend comprises the years 2007, 2008, and 2009, whose EPS values of $2.57, $2.49, and $2.93 average out to $2.66. Next we look at the years 2020, 2021, and 2022, whose values of $1.79, $2.25, and $2.19 average out to $2.08. The growth rate between the two averages does not meet Graham's standard since it is -21.8%.
It may be trading far above its fair value, but Coca-Cola actually satisfies some of the criteria Benjamin Graham used for identifying for an undervalued stock because it has:
- impressive sales revenue
- just enough current assets to cover current liabilities
- much more liabilities than current assets
- positive retained earnings from 2008 to 2022
- a solid record of dividends
- decreasing earnings per share