Stagwell is currently trading at $4.75 per share and has a Graham number of $2.59, which implies that it is 83.4% above its fair value. We calculate the Graham number as follows:

*√(22.5 * 5 year average earnings per share * book value per share) = √(22.5 * 0.08 * 2.791) = 2.59*

The Graham number is one of seven factors that Graham enumerates in Chapter 14 of *The Intelligent Investor* for determining whether a stock offers a margin of safety. Rather than use the Graham number by itself, its best to consider it alongside the following fundamental metrics:

*Sales Revenue Should Be No Less Than $500 million*

For Stagwell, average sales revenue over the last 2 years has been $2.08 Billion, so in the context of the Graham analysis the stock has impressive sales revenue. Originally the threshold was $100 million, but since the book was published in the 1970s it's necessary to adjust the figure for inflation.

*Current Assets Should Be at Least Twice Current Liabilities*

We calculate Stagwell's current ratio by dividing its total current assets of $1.03 Billion by its total current liabilities of $1.35 Billion. Current assets refer to company assets that can be transferred into cash within one year, such as accounts receivable, inventory, and liquid financial instruments. Current liabilities, on the other hand, refer to those that will come due within one year. Stagwell’s current liabilities are actually greater than its current assets, since its current ratio is only 0.8.

*The Company’s Long-term Debt Should Not Exceed its Net Current Assets*

This means that its ratio of debt to net current assets should be 1 or less. Since Stagwell’s debt ratio is -0.6, the company has much more liabilities than current assets. We calculate Stagwell’s debt to net current assets ratio by dividing its total long term of debt of $1.18 Billion by its current assets minus total liabilities of $3.01 Billion.

*The Stock Should Have a Positive Level of Retained Earnings Over Several Years*

Stagwell had negative retained earnings in 2017, 2018, and 2019 with an average of $-308674615.38461536. Retained earnings are the sum of the current and previous reporting periods' net asset amounts, minus all dividend payments. It's a similar metric to free cash flow, with the difference that retained earnings are accounted for on an accrual basis.

*There Should Be a Record of Uninterrupted Dividend Payments Over the Last 20 Years*

We have no record of Stagwell offering a regular dividend within the last twenty years.

*A Minimum Increase of at Least One-third in Earnings per Share (EPS) Over the Past 10 Years*

We are going to compare Stagwell's earnings per share averages from the two 'bookends' of the 10 year period for which we have data. The first bookend comprises the years 2011, 2012, and 2013, whose EPS values of $-1.97, $-0.79, and $-2.00 average out to $-1.59. Next we look at the years 2018, 2019, and 2020, whose values of $-1.46, $-0.15, and $-3.23 average out to $-1.61. The growth rate between the two averages does not meet Graham's standard since it is -1.26%.

Stagwell does not have the profile of a defensive stock according to Benjamin Graham's criteria because in addition to trading far above its fair value, it has:

- impressive sales revenue
- not enough current assets to cover current liabilities
- much more liabilities than current assets
- negative retained earnings in 2017, 2018, and 2019
- no dividend record
- decreasing earnings per share