# Analyzing Constellation Energy's (CEG) Graham Number

Many investors turn to Benjamin Graham's so-called “Graham number” to calculate the fair price of a stock. The Graham number is √(22.5 * 5 year average earnings per share * book value per share), which for Constellation Energy gives us a fair price of \$61.65. In comparison, the stock’s market price is \$196.74 per share. Constellation Energy’s current market price is 219.1% above its Graham number, which implies that there is upside potential -- even for a conservative investors who require a significant margin of safety.

The Graham number is often used in isolation, but in fact it is only one part of a check list for choosing defensive stocks that he laid out in Chapter 14 of The Intelligent Investor. The analysis requires us to look at the following fundamentals of Constellation Energy:

Sales Revenue Should Be No Less Than \$500 million

For Constellation Energy, average sales revenue over the last 3 years has been \$21.95 Billion, so in the context of the Graham analysis the stock has impressive sales revenue. Originally the threshold was \$100 million, but since the book was published in the 1970s it's necessary to adjust the figure for inflation.

Current Assets Should Be at Least Twice Current Liabilities

We calculate Constellation Energy's current ratio by dividing its total current assets of \$8.3 Billion by its total current liabilities of \$6.32 Billion. Current assets refer to company assets that can be transferred into cash within one year, such as accounts receivable, inventory, and liquid financial instruments. Current liabilities, on the other hand, refer to those that will come due within one year. Constellation Energy’s current assets outweigh its current liabilities by a factor of 1.3 only.

The Company’s Long-term Debt Should Not Exceed its Net Current Assets

This means that its ratio of debt to net current assets should be 1 or less. Since Constellation Energy’s debt ratio is -0.2, the company has much more liabilities than current assets because its long term debt to net current asset ratio is -0.2. We calculate Constellation Energy’s debt to net current assets ratio by dividing its total long term of debt of \$7.68 Billion by its current assets minus total liabilities of \$39.47 Billion.

The Stock Should Have a Positive Level of Retained Earnings Over Several Years

Constellation Energy had good record of retained earnings with an average of \$88.33 Million. Retained earnings are the sum of the current and previous reporting periods' net asset amounts, minus all dividend payments. It's a similar metric to free cash flow, with the difference that retained earnings are accounted for on an accrual basis.

There Should Be a Record of Uninterrupted Dividend Payments Over the Last 20 Years

Constellation Energy has offered a regular dividend since at least 2022. The company has returned a 0.7% dividend yield over the last 12 months.

A Minimum Increase of at Least One-third in Earnings per Share (EPS) Over the Past 10 Years

We only have 4 years of EPS on Constellation Energy, so it fails the Graham test on this basis alone, but we still think it's worthwhile to look at its growth over the available period. In 2020, the earnings per share was \$0.00, while in 2023, it was \$5.01. This give us a inf% growth rate during this period, which will satisfy Ben Graham's requirement if it continues on this trend.

Based on the above analysis, we can conclude that Constellation Energy does not have the profile of a defensive stock according to Benjamin Graham's criteria because it is trading above its fair value and has:

• impressive sales revenue
• just enough current assets to cover current liabilities, as shown by its current ratio of 1.31
• much more liabilities than current assets because its long term debt to net current asset ratio is -0.2
• good record of retained earnings
• an acceptable record of dividends
• inadequate information on EPS growth
The above analysis is intended for educational purposes only and was performed on the basis of publicly available data. It is not to be construed as a recommendation to buy or sell any security. Any buy, sell, or other recommendations mentioned in the article are direct quotations of consensus recommendations from the analysts covering the stock, and do not represent the opinions of Market Inference or its writers. Past performance, accounting data, and inferences about market position and corporate valuation are not reliable indicators of future price movements. Market Inference does not provide financial advice. Investors should conduct their own review and analysis of any company of interest before making an investment decision.